What is a peptide?
Polypeptides are biologically active substances involved in the actions of various somatic cells in plants. Polypeptide is a compound produced by linking α-amino acids with peptide bonds. It is also an intermediate substance in protein hydrolysis. Generally, compounds formed by dehydration and condensation of three or more amino acid molecular structures can become polypeptides. With the maturity of biotechnology and peptide synthesis technology, more and more peptide drugs have been developed and applied in clinical medicine.
About drug peptides
Because of its wide application range, high safety and obvious effect, peptide drugs have been widely used in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tumors, hepatitis, diabetes, HIV and other diseases at this stage, and have broad development prospects.
Remetide – The advantages of peptides make you have to love
Peptides are easy to synthesize, modify and upgrade, and their medicinal value can be quickly determined
Because of its own characteristics, the time for peptides from clinical trials to FDA approval is much shorter than that of small molecule drugs, with an average value of about 10 years. Polypeptides are twice as likely to be based on clinical trials as small molecule compounds. The advantages of peptides make it exhibit unique advantages and medical application value in drug development.
The half-life of peptides is generally short and unstable
Polypeptide drugs are easily degraded rapidly in the body. Peptide preparations must be stored at a low temperature. However, it can be improved or combined with other raw materials to form a stable compound to enhance its reliability. Compared with macromolecular proteins or antibodies, peptides are more stable at room temperature, with less usage and higher unit activity.
Compared with macromolecular proteins, peptide synthesis technology is mature
Peptides are easily separated from impurities or by-products, with high purity. The quality, purity and production volume of recombinant protein cannot be guaranteed. Recombinant proteins cannot introduce non-natural amino acids, nor can they be fluorophenylated at the tail end. At the same time, the manufacturing time is long and the cost increases. Peptides are generally more cost-effective than protein antibody drugs, but more expensive than many small molecule drugs.
The synthesis cost of long-chain peptides will be higher, but with the development of science and technology, the release of machinery and equipment, and the improvement of technology, the cost of synthesis and commercialization of small molecule active peptides has been greatly reduced, making it more suitable for clinical medical applications and market expansion.
Peptide drugs cannot be taken orally
Polypeptide drugs are easily degraded and cannot be used on the intestinal mucosa, so they cannot be taken orally. But it can also be administered according to other routes, such as intradermal injection and nasal spray.
Low dosage, strong selectivity, good specificity, good efficacy, and few adverse reactions
Compared with small molecule drugs, some peptide drugs have the advantages of low usage, strong selectivity, good specificity, good efficacy, and fewer adverse reactions. Many small molecule compounds accumulate in special human organs. Macromolecular proteins or antibodies will be non-specifically digested and absorbed by the reticuloendothelial cell system software and the liver. It is difficult to avoid and cause different levels of adverse reactions. Some adverse reactions will be particularly compared.
serious. Polypeptides generally have no adverse reactions or minor reactions. The key factor is that the degradation substance of small molecule active peptides is amino acids, which are generally not easy to accumulate in special human organs and structures, and are very easy to be discharged from the body quickly by the kidneys. Therefore, there are basically no toxicological problems caused by the metabolism of dirt. As everyone knows, some of them are likely to cause adverse reactions due to excessive usage or injection site due to inflammation or other reactions.
Polypeptides lack cell membrane permeability, which endangers somatic cell digestion and absorption
Because of the polypeptide’s size, positive and negative electrodes, water absorption and electrical conductivity, it cannot exceed cell membranes, physiological natural barriers, and blood-brain barriers. As everyone knows, there is a class of peptides that permeate somatic cells with strong cell membrane permeability, so they are used as drug carriers to assist drugs based on cell membranes. At the same time, some peptides can be used as non-specific small molecule drug targeting carriers, delivering drugs to tumor cells and other specific receptor target cells based on specific receptors on the surface of human cells.
In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides and polypeptides can be purified using chromatographic columns, and then further concentrated by vacuuming according to the volatilization method. Because the peptide content is too low and the evaporation time is too long, it is likely to destroy the purified product, and at the same time consume a lot of organic chemical/water eluent. At this stage, the use of nanofiltration membranes to immediately concentrate it, not only can overcome the above shortcomings but also can remove small molecular organic compounds and salts.
Remetide provides peptide synthesis, customized peptides, peptide intermediates, cosmetic peptides, catalog peptides, peptide library construction, antibody services, amino acids and derivatives, book peptides, drug peptides, solid-phase resins, and condensation reagents.